Our Green Credentials

Climate change is the most pressing global issue facing us all, with potential for significant community, biodiversity and environmental consequences across the world.

Carbon reductions are made through a range of projects around the world that not only make real reductions in carbon emissions, but also make a difference to people’s lives; why not take a look at some of the projects with our interactive map.

To find out more about ClimateCare and emission reduction projects, visit www.jpmorganclimatecare.com. Argentina - Biomas Fuel Ghana - Efficient Stoves Uganda - Efficient Stoves India - Fuel Switch India - Treadle Pumps China - Hydro Power Cambodia - Efficient Stoves Taiwan - Wind Power

To find out more about ClimateCare and emission reduction projects, visit www.jpmorganclimatecare.com.

Carbon Offsetting Certificates

To take responsibility for our impact on the climate we are offsetting the carbon emissions from our business through ClimateCare. ClimateCare is an organisation that reduces global greenhouse gas emissions on behalf of companies and individuals.

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October 2012

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September 2013

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March 2014

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August 2014

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Argentina Biomas

4,000tonnes

Background

This project involves the installation of a new high pressure biomass boiler for steam generation at La Providencia Sugar Mill. La Providencia sugar mill was installed in 1882. Historically, steam for sugar processing was generated through a mix of bagasse, natural gas and fuel oil. This new boiler installation will significantly increase the proportion of bagasse used to fire the boiler. Because the same output of steam is required, an increase in bagasse fuel will displace the fossil fuel previously used.

The project

During the sugar manufacturing process, sugar cane is crushed to extract the juices leaving a significant volume of waste biomass, known as bagasse. As a waste product, this bagasse is used to generate power in Argentina’s sugar mills alongside fossil fuels such as gas and fuel oil. However not all of the bagasse is typically utilised due to the inefficiency of the boilers installed. This project takes the opportunity to upgrade these sugar industry boilers so that they can fire a greater proportion of bagasse and displace fossil fuel. However as a result of the 2001 economic crash in Argentina, general investment conditions in the country are poor. Much of the private infrastructure investment is related to industry-specific initiatives in areas where benefits are directly captured by investors (mining, oil and gas). The injection of capital through carbon finance has enabled the purchase of a new high pressure boiler at the La Providencia Sugar Mill, displacing fossil fuel use with an increased volume of bagasse for its own power generation.

Benefits beyond emissions

Social: The new boiler technology has resulted in new, higher value skills amongst employees. Economic: The installation of the new boiler using carbon finance is a great flagship project which could be replicated in all 19 other sugar mills in Argentina, generating significant emission reductions. Environmental: The project reduces requirements for natural gas and fuel oil, reducing not only greenhouse gas emissions but other pollutants associated with the burning of fossil fuels from the local environment.

Ghana Efficient Stoves

165,159 tonnes

Rocket Stove

Background

More than 80% of Ghanaian households use wood or charcoal as their main cooking fuel. Whilst wood is used in rural areas, charcoal is common in urban areas because it is light and easy to transport and quick to light. Charcoal is used by approximately 1.3 million households or 31% of all families in Ghana. In the capital city of Accra, about 70% of households use charcoal for cooking. However, deforestation rates in Ghana are amongst the highest in Africa, with current levels of wood-fuel consumption far exceeding forest growth. The charcoal production process contributes heavily to this deforestation and is responsible for high emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. This is because charcoal is produced in simple earth-mound kilns with carbonisation ratios of about 8 tonnes of wood to 1 tonne of charcoal, meaning that large volumes of wood are consumed to make it. An opportunity has arisen to encourage the deployment of efficient charcoal stoves to households in Ghana, reducing charcoal consumption and therefore alleviating the problems associated with its use.

The project

Most families cook with charcoal in a metal grate or ‘coal-pot’ that burns very inefficiently. This project replaces coal pots with an efficient insulated stove, known as the Gyapa. Users of the Gyapa are pleased with the effects: they observe that the stove keeps going for longer periods, cooks food more quickly, is less smoky and uses less fuel. Careful fuel consumption tests undertaken as part of the baseline study showed that the Gyapa reduces charcoal consumption by 25%. The liners are made by a small group of accredited ceramicists who have received specialist training. The metal claddings are made by a further group of accredited manufacturers. Enterprise Works, our project partner in Ghana, provides training and quality control services, and distributes the stoves through a wide network of retailers. The baseline for the project is the quantity of charcoal used by the common-place inefficient charcoal stoves, translated into greenhouse gas emissions in kitchens, together with the greenhouse gas emissions arising from charcoal production in forest areas.

Benefits beyond emissions

Social benefits

  • Reducing fuel costs for families and freeing up money for other uses, thereby improving livelihoods of the poor.
  • The new Gyapa stoves are less smoky, reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants and improving the health of the cooks, typically mothers and children.

Economic benefits

  • Creating employment and building capacity throughout the supply chain i.e. in manufacturing, distribution, retailing, quality control and project management.
  • Improving Ghana’s technological self-reliance - the stoves are locally manufactured and specialist skills are being developed and furthered in-country.

Environmental

  • Significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions through a reduction in charcoal consumption.
  • Reducing pressure on remaining forest reserves in Ghana, slowing widespread deforestation and aiding biodiversity.

Uganda Efficient Stoves

1,500 tonnes

Background

Rocket Stove More than 95% of Ugandans rely on fuel wood for cooking, typically charcoal or wood for urban dwellers and wood for rural households. The current stoves used for cooking have low efficiency and this increases the amount of fuel wood needed to prepare a meal. Greenhouse gas emissions are released into the atmosphere during fuel wood burning, as well as the release of particulate particles during cooking leading to indoor air pollution. UN studies show that worldwide indoor air pollution from cooking stoves causes around 1.5 million premature deaths each year and also causes debilitating illness for tens of millions more.

The project

David Mukisa - Uganda The Uganda Stoves Project supplies efficient wood burning stoves to families and institutions in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, and subsequently through out the country. The project involves dissemination of two types of fuel-efficient stoves which have high efficiencies:
  1. Improved fuel-efficient residential wood stoves
  2. Improved fuel-efficient institutional wood stoves
A project is also being run in Uganda to disseminate efficient charcoal burning stoves on behalf of a business client. The project will transform the market by improving awareness amongst the population, establishing business capacity to manufacture and market the stoves, creating jobs in retail and after-sales service, and establishing quality assurance procedures which include careful monitoring of the usage and effectiveness of the new stoves. The project aims to install 20,000 stoves per year in the initial years, with the intention of increasing the sales figures in later years. Each stove will have an average lifespan of 3 years.

Benefits beyond emissions

Social benefits

  • Increased family incomes due to reduced expenditure on woodfuel.
  • Less kitchen smoke and consequently improved health.

Environmental benefits

  • Reduced deforestation in Uganda, in areas affected by the Kampala market.

Economic benefits

  • Improved local technological and business capability, building a better economic base for the country.
  • New employment opportunities in an improved stove market.
  • A solid step toward fuel self-sufficiency for the country as efficient stove production stimulates sustainable wood supply
Kampala Stove UserQuotations from local people:

Grace

Grace is a local resident who lives a few streets away from the factory. She, alongside most of the people in her neighbourhood, uses an improved charcoal cook stove for preparing family meals such as the local staple of matoke (green bananas). On asking her what she thought of the stove, she replied; “I feel happy with it. It functions well and lasts a lot longer than the traditional stove that I used previously. It saves my family money on charcoal and I would not want to change back to using the old stove that I once used.”

Kiwa

Kiwa is the Inventory Manager at Uganda Stove Manufacturers Ltd, where the efficient stoves are made. He lives locally to the factory in the surrounding area of high density housing. Kiwa explains how he enjoys his job controlling the movements of stock in and out of the factory, especially when orders are made for large quantities of cooking stoves. He explains how the factory has brought a good deal of employment to the area; “the people living in this area of Kampala are very poor. The stove factory has brought a lot of employment to the area and now employs 56 people, mostly residents of the local parish.”

David Mukisa

David heads up the Uganda Improved Cooking project in Kampala explained how carbon finance through the voluntary market has helped the project; “I think that this project is a really good example of a success story of the voluntary carbon market mechanism. In the first year of our improved cooking stove project here in Kampala we did not have access to carbon finance and the business model proved to be unsustainable, with just 3,000 stoves sold in the first 9 months. We began to look elsewhere for additional finance and were disappointed to find that we could not tap into the compliance market because the cooking stove technologies were not recognised. Through the voluntary market we were able to access the finance to tip the project so that it became viable. The carbon finance has allowed us to spend money on training staff, marketing and sales and credit facilities. This has meant that we are able to reach out to more customers and offer them an affordable product through the provision of micro-finance. We are now selling about 100 stoves a day and over 2007, we expect to generate over 20,000t of CO2 offsets.” “I don’t believe that Uganda is set up to benefit from the compliance carbon market at the moment. There is a lack of knowledge here in regards to carbon finance and I believe the CDM systems are too complex when coupled with the complications of bureaucracy in the country. Our projects desperately need extra funding in the shortest possible time to get them off the ground. I see the voluntary market as being able to help us whilst still providing rigorous standards for our projects to meet."

India Fuel Switch

11,043 tonnes

Background

Biltube Core Boards Limited (BCBL) is an Indian company which manufactures and supplies paper-based core boards for manufacturing paper tubes and paper cones.  Prior to the implementation of this project, Biltube’s operations were heavily carbon intensive.  Furnace oil was fired in the boiler to create steam in order to dry out the paper sheets, resulting in the creation of significant GHG emissions.  In fact, the paper and pulp sector is one of the most energy intensive and highly polluting sectors in India.

The project

This project involves conversion of the boiler at an Indian paper factory to enable a switch from furnace oil to bagasse (the pulp left after crushing sugarcane to extract the juice) to generate steam for drying paper sheets. Approximately 1,500 tonnes of furnace oil are expected to be replaced with renewable bagasse each year.

Sugarcane Planting

Being situated in the heart of Kolhapur’s sugarcane industry, a window of opportunity arose for BCBL to switch from using fuel oil for its operations to using renewable power from the waste sugar cane material. In the process of crushing the sugar cane to extract the juices, a significant volume of this waste biomass is produced, known as bagasse. As a waste product, the bagasse is usually left to rot down outside the sugar mill or is burnt in farmer’s fields. Bagasse is assumed to be a carbon-neutral fuel as the CO2 emissions from burning of bagasse are sequestered by the plant species, representing a cyclic process. Approximately 1,500 tonnes of furnace oil are expected to be replaced with renewable bagasse each year.

Benefits beyond emissions

Social: - Increased job opportunities are provided because the new system requires additional manpower to sort and feed the bagasse fuel and special training for the boiler operators. Currently, the factory employs 30 admin staff (spread over the site itself and an office in Pune) and 50 operating staff. - On the job training and development for staff boosts skills in the local community. Economic: - The factory acts as a flagship in a country heavily reliant on fossil fuels by raising the profile of renewable electricity in the investment market. Environmental: - Reduced ash and sulphur dioxide emissions previously emitted from the combustion of furnace oil.

India Treadle Pumps

11,043 tonnes

Background

Many families in the newly formed state of Jharkhand in India depend on agriculture for their livelihood. In order for farmers to grow crops outside the monsoon season, and ensure an income all year round, irrigation is vital.

Many farmers have to rent costly diesel pumps for this irrigation. These are generally hired for short periods, meaning that the fields have to be flooded which wastes water, washes away top soil and is costly.

The project

Treadle Diesel Pump

The project will enable not-for-profit, non-governmental organisation International Development Enterprises (India) (IDE-I) to expand appropriate technology treadle pumps to regions across India.

The treadle pump is a simple device developed by the IDE-I. It uses human power to pump water from wells, streams and lakes up to the fields. This allows farmers on the plains of India to grow crops all year round rather than wait for the monsoon. IDE-I is facilitating this process by organising manufacturers, distributors, agents and field engineers, as well as marketing the pumps to villages. Villagers pay for the pumps, which have a life of over 10 years, cost savings are soon made on diesel while improved crop yields increase household income.

The emission reduction baseline is diesel use. Analysis puts emissions savings at about 477 kg of CO2 per pump per year. The emission reduction calculations have been independently assessed and approved in the validation by TUV Nord.

Additionality will be measured against the small scale CDM guidelines. Treadle pumps are not used widely and there are numerous barriers to overcome in making this market – carbon finance gives the NGO a long term source of income, reducing the need for the donor funding upon which it has relied to date and providing the ability to expand the operations.

Benefits beyond emissions

Socio-economic: Treadle pumps can be used whenever the farmer needs to irrigate, rather than having to wait to hire a diesel pump from large landowners, often for long periods which means many crops suffer from lack of irrigation in the intervening period. The farmers also have to repeatedly pay expensive hiring fees and diesel costs. Using the treadle, households benefit from an increased income due to the ability to grow more and diverse crops; a study by The Energy Resources Institute (TERI) found an increase in the cultivated acreage of up to 255% in some villages where the treadle pump had been adopted, meaning more crops to take to market, and greater variety in the families’ diet.

According to a report by the Acumen Fund into the impact of treadle pumps on the welfare of children, 100% of households in Uttar Pradesh had changed their diet since installing the treadle pump - by eating green leafy vegetables - and 83% of households were able to add milk to their diet, on account of being able to afford to buy livestock.

Financial savings on diesel pump hire mean farmers improve their physical and human capital by purchasing land, livestock and other assets and by educating their children.

In over 50% of households in Uttar Pradesh, extra income was used to buy learning materials for children (Acumen report, June 2007) which helps ensure the children's future. Treadle pump usage also means less migration for work so that fathers are not working away for long periods - according to Acumen some families were separated for up to 7 months of the year. This migration is no longer necessary, which creates a more stable family environment for children.

Environmental: The manually operated pumps do not produce any GHG emissions. They are also less damaging to the quality of the top soil compared with diesel pumps, as the speed of discharge of water is lower, meaning less of the fertile top soil is washed away. Preservation of top soil means that over time the farmers have to add less fertiliser. The treadle pump well is dug manually, whereas the diesel well is dug mechanically, thereby reducing fossil fuel use and local pollution during installation.

China Hydro Power

27,946 tonnes

Background

Since coal power dominates the rapidly expanding electricity grid in China, the current emissions for each unit of electricity generated is very high. The cost of developing renewable power plants (running on water-power, for example) is significantly higher than that of coal-fired ones, making the support from carbon finance essential to the ‘greening’ of the country’s energy generation. However, it has never been more critical to help China divert to a low-carbon path as more and more business floods into the country.

The project

Mani Hydro

In the remote mountain village of Yonghong sits the Mani Hydro Power Station, on the banks of the Yinhe River, Sichuan Province.

Water from the river is diverted steeply downhill via a 400m slope which surfaces at the power plant and is directed through two 7 MW water turbines. Production peaks during the rainy season (April to July), and on average produces 60GWh a year, the equivalent to supplying around 14,000 average homes in the UK with clean, renewable electricity.

Photo: water is directed steeply downhill to maximise the power generated by its flow - Photo courtesy of Climate Bridge

Mr Like Lazu, a local resident employed by the local county, told us how Mani has improved his family’s quality of living;

“Our income has increased. We used to buy our clothes and salt with money from selling crops. All of our revenue came from selling bamboo shoots, potatoes and the corn my family planted. After I started working for Mani last year, I have had a monthly income of RMB 800, which is much higher than our regional average. We did not have a TV set before, but now we have one. Also, we have better clothes.”

Cambodia Efficient Stoves

74,653 tonnes

Background

The majority of Cambodian people depend on fuel-wood daily for cooking, most commonly using the Lao stove. This traditional stove uses charcoal that is produced from earth mound kilns; a process that is inefficient and is responsible for high emissions of greenhouse gases.

The project

Cambodia Cooking

The project involves replacing the traditional Lao stove with an efficiency of 25% with an improved Lao stove having an efficiency of 29%. The programme is run by GERES.

Although the gain in the efficiency may seem small, this gain leads to a cut in the demand for charcoal by 21%. The project therefore reduces greenhouse gases used in both charcoal production and the use of charcoal during cooking.

This project aims to transform the cooking market in Cambodia. It overcomes many barriers to achieve its goal: developing the stove, developing the sales channels, improving sales techniques, marketing the stove and management training. Distribution channels are set up from producers to retailers to users, with training provided for the producers and retailers.

Other benefits

Social: The project is building the country's capacity in technical skills in the manufacture, marketing and sale of the improved cooking stove.

Economic: By reducing the amount of fuel used for cooking, the project enables stove users to spend less on fuel to cook.

Environmental: Some estimated 369,000 tonnes of wood fuel are consumed for charcoal production annually, destroying 45km2 of deciduous forests each year. Only 3% of this re-grows, which translates to an average loss of 197,000 ha annually. The project helps to reduce this loss by reducing the demand for wood fuel.

Taiwan Wind Power

336,683 tonnes

Background

Taiwan is a highly populated and industrial country separated from the Asian continent by a 160km wide body of water. Power generated from fossil fuel dominates the electricity grid in Taiwan and as such there is a very high amount of greenhouse gas emissions released for each unit of electricity generated.

Taiwan has an abundant wind resource both on and offshore which can be used for clean power generation.

The project

Taichung Wind

The project involves the development of two wind farms on the west coast of Taiwan. The project comprises 42 turbines within an Industrial Park in Changbin and another 20 turbines are located in Taichung.

The wind turbines are Enercon E70 versions, each having a capacity of 2.3MW. At full capacity, the aggregated output of the project is expected to be of 483,864 MWh/year, which is to be delivered to the state-owned power grid, Taipower. Accordingly, the project will lead to carbon dioxide emission reduction since it will avoid the use of fossil fuel in the electricity generating system.

Other benefits

Social: - Creates local employment in both during the construction and operational phase - Provides clean electricity to the equivalent of 110,000 Taiwanese households annual demand

Economic: - contribute to the development of the wind energy sector in Taiwan - Transfers technology and know-how as the employees are trained by German wind turbine manufacturer Enercon on maintenance, safety and operational issues - Contributes to Taiwan's economic sustainability by reducing the dependency on fossil fuel imports

Environmental: - Reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in Taiwan by replacing fossil fuel based power generation - Contribute to the reduction of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particles resulting from the electricity generation from fossil fuels in Taiwan

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